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What explains why “Voluntary Consent” is the first ethical principle

Answer the following questions given (choose ONLY 5) for this assignment! I will provide the reading in order to answer these questions. The criteria and instructions are handed in one of the files. PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY, I have dealt with writer who do not follow the instructions. ____

1. What explains why “Voluntary Consent” is the first ethical principle in the Nuremberg Code? 2. Schuster mentions German psychiatrist Werner Leibbrand who explained what he called “biologic thinking”. Explain what that is. 3. The defense at Nuremberg pointed out that the US had also conducted dangerous experiments on prisoners. What were these American experiments and what was Werner Leibbrand’s response to this? 4. What other reasons did defense lawyers provide to justify the Nazi experiments? 5. Andrew Ivy’s position on the American experiments differed from that of Werner Leibbrand. Explain how it differed and how Ivy justified his own view. 6. According to Schuster, “Ivy also stressed that the state may not assume the moral responsibility of physicians to their patients or research subjects…” Please clarify this statement. 7. Defense implied that US doctors had broken the Hippocratic Oath that forbids them from “…administer[ing] a poison to anyone even when asked to do so”. How does Ivy respond to this accusation? 8. Schuster makes an important distinction between the physician in the physician-patient relationship and the physician as researcher. Please explain what that is. 9. Why does Schuster seem to believe the Hippocratic Oath may be insufficient to protect the subjects of experimental research? 10. What has been the most important impact of the Nuremberg Code according to Schuster?

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